Medici from Florenz were a powerful family. Their wealth (they owned Medici bank, one of biggest and most truthful banks in Europe at that time), connections (family gave 4 popes,their daughters married to European courts) and fact that they themselves become royal house enabled them to politically dominate the region from late 14-th century up to the 18-th century.They were generous patrons to the artists of the time and spent huge amounts of money building palaces, fortresses, gardens.
It is obvious that it was in the spirit of renaissance to invest in lavish buildings with picturesque gardens around,to study humanities and collect art.But what was the reason , that on December 1, 1545, Cosimo I de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany established botanical garden in Florenz -, “Giardino dei Semplici“ (medicinal herb garden)]just after Pisa and Padova had got their botanical gardens? What made him think this is important, as there were yet only two botanical gardens in the world? After all, he could build just one more palazzo with beautiful garden .
I guess the reason lies in his grandmother Caterina Sforza, for he inherited passion for alchemy from her.She dedicated her last years of life to her children, grandchildren and her alchemical experiments.She had curiosity (or need?) to experiment in alchemy, this were in a way natural sciences .From here is just a step towards wish to investigate natural phenomena, botany included.
As enough passion to investigate nature and enough knowledge to distinct observations of nature as something important were needed (among with enough money) to set a botanical garden in 14-th century-do we today have enough passion, knowledge and money to recognize botanical gardens as important humanistic legacy for future generations?
Euphorbia forms one of the biggest genera of plants.It originates in tropical and subtropical Africa and America and its more as 2000 species show big diversity.Which fascinates me, is the same plant making my day brighter today, took attention centuries ago already. Isn’t it strange to know the plant I write about today (and your read it ) was named by husband of Cleopatra’s daughter ? King Juba II of Numidia named Euphorbia after his personal Greek physician Euphorbus!
Coin of the ancient kingdom of Mauretania. Juba II of Numidia on the obverse, Cleopatra Selene II on the reverse.from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra_Selene_II
Juba II (Iuba in Latin; Ancient Greek: Ἰóβας, Ἰóβα or Ἰούβας) or Juba II of Numidia(52/50 BC – AD 23) was a king of Numidia and then later moved to Mauretania.His first wife was Cleopatra Selene II, daughter to Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Juba II was brought to Rome by Julius Caesar and took part in Caesar’s triumphal procession. In Rome, he learned Latin and Greek, became romanized and was granted Roman citizenship. Through dedication to his studies, he is said to have become one of Rome’s best educated citizens, and by age 20 he wrote one of his first works entitledRoman Archaeology. He was raised by Julius Caesar and later by his great-nephew Octavian (future Emperor Caesar Augustus).
He is also known to have written a book about a spurge found in the High Atlas which he named Euphorbia after his personal physician. It was later called Euphorbia regisjubae (‘King Juba’s euphorbia’) in his honor (it is now Euphorbia obtusifolia ssp. regis-jubae).Botanist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus assigned the name Euphorbiato the entire genus in the physician’s honor.
Memories from counties I’ve visited are like kaleidoscopic pictures made from vivid colors, music and noises from far away and-smells and flavors so different from what I know that I remember them forever.One such memory takes me back in eighties,when still living in socialist country but being lucky enough to travel abroad.Returning from our trips to Italy we would always stop in little shops just in front of border,spending last lira to buy some specialities to bring home.Among them was Chinotto,a drink so different from our lives at that time that it remained in my memories as a reminiscence of summers when everything seemed so far away..From those times many things have changed, but the taste of this drink remained the same-sweet and bitter, a bit sour like nothing we’ve tasted before.
Visiting Florence this march I remember by spring colors of Tuscan gardens, smooth flow of Arno river and wonderful smell of orange flowers in Botanical garden -Giardino dei semplici.They have a vast collection of citrus plants. I’ve never imagined lemons in shape of Buddha’s hand or in shape of a pear,that Jews have their own Citron, as also Florence does ,but most intriguing of them all is Bizzaria , botanists needed three centuries to solve this chimera puzzle from Florence .And me? I’ve solved my chinotto puzzle in Florence:- among citrus trees!Citrus myrtifolia, the myrtle-leaved orange tree gives fruit which is used not only to flavor chinotto,but also many Italian amari !
|Myrtle-leaved orange tree|
|Chinotto oranges growing on a tree|
Botany gets a bit more complicated when we meet bryophytes and cryptogams Something to start with could be: bryophytes are all cryptogams, but not vice-versa, some cryptogams are not bryophytes. Yet beware not to mess them all with cryptograms, although it seems that science may find some cryptograms (secret code) in genetic material of mosses, giving promise to new drugs development. Anyway,I was astonished seeing all those water pearls on our concrete wall moss looking as simple plain green carpet from far, but turning into a fine needlepoint when one comes close enough.It attracted me enough to spend some time observing tiny green hair.I can totally understand those guys from british bryological society !
The spore-bearing sporophytes(i.e. the diploid multicellular generation) are short-lived and dependent on the gametophyte for water supply and nutrition. ,mosses and other bryophytes have only a single set of chromosomes and so are haploid (i.e. each chromosome exists in a unique copy within the cell). There are periods in the moss life cycle when they do have a double set of paired chromosomes, but this happens only during the sporophyte stage.
Taking a train ride for Stoke on Trent I was observing Potteries landscape running by, all green and smooth.It made me happy to recognize English countryside just as sculptured in Wallace &Gromit our kids liked that much .Yet my thoughts at that moment were: “If I survive this I shall reward myself with one Wedgwood cup!”-sorry my friends in Stoke, but at that moment I couldn’t know that all the clay and coal from these green paysage helped writing a garden story I would listen with open mouth…
I met a young man by the name of J. Wedgwood who had planted a flower garden adjacent to his pottery.He also had his men wash their hands and faces and change their clothes after working in the clay.(attributed to John Wesley).
I was happy indeed, when I found this sentence, visiting Wedgwood museum.There were so many potters there around, for centuries, but just one of them, Josiah Wedgwood, succeeded to become the one and only one. How he did it? The mentioned sentence explains it all. I am not saying each gardener will become best potter ever. Yet to make porcelain that different from average, so beautiful, with fantastic patterns, one has to be a good observer,and one has to dare. Young Joshua dared to plant a garden behind his factory, there he could observe the beauty of nature, and to transpose it into porcelain.I state this shows nature is the best teacher keen observer can have.
Garden themes Joshua Wedgwood revived in porcelain brought his name far away.
One of Wedgwood porcelain masterpieces-Frog service- was commissioned by Empress Catherine in 1773 .Incredible number of 952 pieces of the service were all painted with 1,244 realistic scenes with buildings ,gardens and landscapes from England.As the service was intended for the palace built on a frog marsh a green frog emblem was painted on each piece of the service.
Frog Service Dessert Plate View 947. A View taken near Mr Smith’s House at Battersea looking up The Thames. Designed & engraved by Boydell, 1752. (Possibly a duplicate that was not sent to Russia due to an imperfection).from:http://wedgwoodmuseum.wordpress.com/2012/05/02/by-royal-approval-wedgwoods-queens-ware/#more-216
Nature and gardens didn’t bring Joshua Wedgwood only to the queens of England and Russia, there arouse even more important friendship.In 1780 Wedgwood turned to Erasmus Darwin,English physician, natural philosopher, physiologist, inventor and poet, to help him running the business after Wedgwood business partner died.It is no surprise the two became close friends.Why? They both admired botany! While in Etruria Works fantastic porcelain with scenery from nature, gardens, botany was produced Darwin worked for seven years on Carolus Linnaeus latin text coining many English botanic terms in use up to today.
Erasmus Darwin, from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erasmus_Darwin
Erasmus Darwin was not only a scientist and inventor, he was also a poet.His two poems; The Economy of Vegetation and The Loves of the Plants,were published together as The Botanic Garden (1791).The book was an expensive one, but it became a best-seller It was educating broader public, making botany interesting ,speaking about evolution in nature.
Title page from The Botanic Garden(1791), from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Botanic_Garden
But the story does not end yet! Joshuas daughter married Erasmus son.Their son was Charles Darwin, father of the evolution theory! Could you believe what arouse from the love of nature , gardens, botany?
The seven-year-old Charles Darwin in 1816.from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin
This post was written as a guest post for The Beagle Project, a blog about Charles Darwin journey ,so inspiring even today.
Tonight St Nicholas is bringing gifts to kids.The brave ones will get their plates filled with sweets and little gifts, the naughty ones are getting only a piece of charcoal, but all of them will get at least one Krampus, just for instance …….
I found this Krampus troop in Salzburg (I swear they are not from my plate ), and as they are so “botanical” they deserve to be published, don’t you think so?
A friend gave me this beautiful pomegranate she grew on her summer-house garden.Not a kilo of them, not five or two of them,just a single one.And it is the same with me.I may bring a kilo of oranges to my friend, but I will choose just one pomegranate for a gift.And it is always the same,one pomegranate is a perfect gift one looks forward of getting it. I don’t know from where this tradition, or is it just a habit,came.But I am sure it has to do something with strong symbolism of pomegranate,offering a pomegranate one gives best wishes for prosperity, health,ambition,fertility, wealth, good luck.And these do not come in numbers. This is ,why a pomegranate given from a friend’s heart always means a lot...
The pomegranate is the symbol of Armenia and represents fertility, abundance and marriage. One ancient custom widely accepted in ancient Armenia was performed at weddings. A bride was given a pomegranate fruit, which she threw against a wall, breaking it into pieces. Scattered pomegranate seeds ensured the bride future children.
The name pomegranate derives from medieval Latin pōmum ”apple” and grānātum“seeded”. While most European languages have cognate names for the fruit, stemming from Latin granatum, an exception is the Portuguese term romã which is derived from Arabic ruman, and has cognates in other Semitic languages (e.g. Hebrew rimmon) and Ancient Egyptianrmn.
|A pomegranate fruit|
Man Holding a Pomegranate, cca1618,from:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Brooklyn_Museum_-_Man_Holding_a_Pomegranate.jpg
Antonio Ponce, 17th century, Pomegranates, from: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AntonioPonce.jpg
Marie Egner, about 1940, Granatäpfel auf einer Fensterbank, from:http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Marie_Egner_Granat%C3%A4pfel_auf_einer_Fensterbank.jpg
My Botanical Garden was invited to contribute an article for Urban Gardens NYC blog .This is a blog that (from ABOUT section) states:
Urban gardening is nothing new, even in a concrete jungle like New York City. But the sheer scale on which green spaces are sprouting up around the city these days is something worth talking about. This blog was inspired by the nearly 625 gardens registered last year in the NYCHA 2011 Annual Garden and Greening Awards Competition. Gardens like those grown by public housing residents continue to proliferate, and this blog supports the amazing phenomenon by providing information, tips, success stories, and shared experiences.
I was happy to have an invitation from someone not only interested in the same topics as am I,but even more, having an interesting, educative ,ambitious blog.It was my pleasure to write an article about city gardens Krakovo in Ljubljana-THE KRAKOVO GARDENS.Here is the link for the article:
And make sure to check other posts down there in Urban Gardens NYC-they are great!
One of the flowers capturing my attention in Florence Botanical Garden comes from far Africa.It’s hard to imagine African hill slopes covered with clivias in orange, yellow or red ,it must look like in Eden! The flower was sent to Europe around 1823 and become extremely popular in Victorian England homes and gardens.Many hybrids have been grown up to today,with colors from apricot , orange ,yellow, white and even dark red,the leaves broad or narrow or even in bi-color.Searching internet pages I found thousands of pretty pictures of the flower,but the one I was searching for was missing. Clivia bears her name in honor of Lady Charlotte Florentine Clive, Duchess of Northumberland, an avid plant enthusiast,it was in her garden that Clivia blossomed for the first time in Europe.I was unable to find any picture of this English lady,so here is the picture of her husband,at least.
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland KG, PC (20 April 1785 – 11 February 1847),from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Percy,_3rd_Duke_of_Northumberland
Not finding anything more about the lady Charlotte Florentine Clive, Duchess of Northumberland (except the fact that she was appointed governess of Princess Victoria, the later Queen Victoria), I had to check who mister Regel was. I’ve found his picture immediately:
Eduard August von Regel (born August 13, 1815 in Gotha, died April 15, 1892 in St. Petersburg) ,from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eduard_August_von_Regel
What a surprise!This guy was garden volunteer at the beginning of his career! Nevertheless, he later served as head of the Old Botanical Garden, Zürich and later as director of the Imperial Botanical Garden,St. Petersburg, Russia. He founded Russian Gardening Society and published 3101 articles in academic journals!
This findings made me less unhappy not finding lady’s portrait, especially as Clivia flower will talk about this woman and botanist Regel forever ,leaving us in wonder whether the two of them would appreciate it…………….